Submission plan and site plan
Because the construction industry is subject to state legislation, the regulations and procedures for submitting a building application vary from state to state – inquire about this at the responsible authority (municipal office, magistrate). In principle, however, a submission plan is always required for the approval of a building project, which also includes a site plan that shows your property and all neighboring properties. Because the site plan depicts the terrain and the various conditions and rules of development on a property, it is of great importance for the planning of the building.
Composition of the site plan
The site plan consists of a written and a graphic part. There are standardized plan-drawing regulations that the submission plans must correspond to exactly. In special cases, the authorities can also request further representations or supplementary information to clearly present the construction project.
The written part of a Site plan is a literal description of the property and its surroundings, a determination of the building encumbrances and the name of the client. The property numbers and the names and addresses of the owners must be given for the building plot and the adjacent plots of land. All figures relevant to the building permit are also listed there (surface area, number of floors, number of building masses, etc.). It also specifies which building materials may be used.
The graphic part depicts the property, or more precisely, the position of the building on the property from a bird’s eye view. It is usually made on a scale of 1:200, 1:250 or 1:500. This is where the site plan differs from the floor plans, sections and elevations that are also part of the submission plan and are produced on a scale of 1:100. However, the exact scale differs depending on the municipality and property. Since the graphic part of the site plan is a map, the north direction must also be drawn in.
The plan shows not only the building plot, but also its surroundings and the neighboring plots. These are important factors, e.g. B. can affect the height and width of the building. The altitude of the site must be marked both for the building plot and for the adjacent plots of land.
Public traffic areas, sidewalks, avenue trees and tracks must be just as visible as the installations and wiring systems installed in the ground. If the building plot borders on a traffic area or a body of water, its width must be drawn in.
Existing parts of buildings or parts of buildings to be retained are shown in grey, parts of buildings to be removed are shown in yellow and new buildings to be erected are shown in red. In the case of new buildings and additions, the smallest distances to the property boundaries must be drawn. In the case of an enclosure, the correct position of the boundary to the traffic area is required.
In addition, the site plan must show retaining walls and paths, playgrounds (dimensions and access), car parking spaces (location and number), drinking water fountains and waste water disposal systems as well as locations for garbage cans (city cleaning). The arrangement of the green areas, including the planned or existing planting, should also not be forgotten.
Importance and preparation of the site plan
Due to all the factors mentioned above, the site plan is essential for the building permit. Violations of individual parts of the plan can result in a construction freeze, in the worst case the house builder is obliged to dismantle. For this reason, the site plan may only be created by sworn experts for dimensioning, by publicly appointed surveyors or similarly qualified persons.
When creating a site plan, the official property map must be taken into account, but the basis for the plan is a survey plan created by the surveyor (graphic part of the site plan). If the neighbors do not raise any objections regarding the course of the border, this becomes binding for everyone, including the authorities. For this reason, such survey plans must be created by geometers (engineering consultants for surveying, commonly also called civil geometers or geometers for short) with the greatest precision, based on the nature survey and taking into account the state reference points.
Modern equipment is used for field measurements. Probably the most well-known tool used by surveyors is the electronic tachymeter (also called total station), which is used in combination with GPS and tablets. The GPS devices used by surveyors are extremely precise and are used for professional purposes only. The tachymeter is used to measure large distances. In addition, other measuring instruments such as levels (digital levels) and laser scanners are used. These modern tools eliminate the need for paper sketches. The plan is created on site and is only adapted to the formal requirements in the office.